the following sections:
- ESOL 1: Course description
- Course Objectives/Learning Standards
- course design
- learning standards
are online here
Theme one: Who learns ESOL? - Knowledge of learner population
PRIOR to beginning the course, participants are asked to observe three adult learners; free write descriptive narrative of the students based on 10 minutes of observation; this writing will form the basis of a subsequent assignment. (Realizing that it's possible that some participants will not have completed the task, the subsequent step will allow for combining this initial observation with an extended observation).
This session is about adult learners. It considers:
- learners' individual needs, abilities, interests, goals, expectations, and experiences;
- learner factors that might either promote or hinder their language acquisition process as adults,
- the social contexts where learners need, use, and learn English and the purposes associated with these contexts.
- larger arenas in which language is important: bureaucratic systems, employment, health care, etc.
- an overview of methodologies and approaches to adult learning, including ways in which technology can be integrated into learning, and
- a consideration of participants themselves as learners.
This session demonstrates that effective teaching begins with and is informed by the experiences of adult ESOL learners and the contexts and purposes for language learning associated with these experiences.
Learning Standards addressed in this session:
1. Identify the reasons why adults learn English, the contexts in which they learn English and the experiences (i.e. interests, needs, skills, background) they bring
2. Describe how different learner characteristics and experiences may affect learning and identify teaching implications
Explain why different approaches and methods for teaching ESOL may be appropriate for some (groups of) learners and not for others
Participants are expected to meet these standards of demonstrating their understanding of adult ESOL learners and their experiences by producing a chart that presents a profile of the adult ESOL learners in one of their classes/series of tutorials. The chart should reflect learner characteristics that will affect the teaching and learning process. Minimally the profile should address relevant demographics, needs, expectations, abilities, and experiences likely to either promote or hinder learning. Participants who include implications for teaching based on these characteristics will exceed the standard. Participants should be able to produce this chart in 1-2 hours. The rationale for this standard is that teachers should be able to identify learner information and adapt their teaching to be as responsive as possible to learner factors as to maximize learning.
Writing assignment for session three: :return to profile brought to session one, adding guided observations addressing points elicited during session one [participants speak to profiles previously written, adding information based on questions raised during the first session and/or returning to observe the same students and writing thicker, richer descriptions ]; for session two: complete class profiles
READINGS - instructors are encouraged to choose from among these readings, and/or assign readings to groups who will share content with one another between sessions, in face-to-face meetings or electronically
Principles of adult language and literacy learning - part of the cyberstep project, linking adult learning principles to sepcific examples of web sites/activities/practice.
Adult Learning Principles from the Study Place
Tips for ESOL/literacy teachers from Bringing Literacy to Life by Heide Wrigley and Gloria Guth.
excerpts from Making Meaning, Making Change - pp 32-36 - overview of learner populations
Using Adult Learning Principles in Adult Basic and Literacy Education ED425336 Susan Imel 1998
choose one or two sites from this page to share/discuss in terms of merits re: integrating technology into adult learning.online ESOL resourcesfrom the Literacy Assistance Center in New York.-
grammar and assessment
Language Learning Strategies: An Update Rebecca Oxford, University of Alabama, October 1994
Needs Assessment for Adult ESL Learners Kathleen Santopietro Weddel, Colorado Department of Education , Carol Van Duzer, National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education http://www.tnfsh.tn.edu.tw/teach/eng/web/applied%20lingusitics/www.cal.org/ncle/digests/Needas.htm
Adult ESL Resources from CAELA
Techniques for Authentic Assessment ED381688 Sandra Kerka 1995
Native Language Literacy and Adult ESL Instruction by Klaudia Rivera
Mass DOE Bilingual/Native Language Literacy
check these resources
Please visit the following websites to gain an oveview of online resources; be prepared to speak to their apparent usefulness and also find two sites of interest to you from within these larger sites
assignment for session three:
WRITING: return to profile, adding guided observations addressing points elicited during session one [ participants speak to the profiles they'd quickly written, either then add information based on questions raised during the first session and/or return to observing the same students and writing thicker, richer descriptions - for session three]; for session two - complete class profile.
Theme Two: Where and Why do Adults Need and learn English? Š learning challenges, diagnostics, SPL, placement, goal setting, learning plans
: How to Teach ESOL and Why principles of second language acquisition, Native Language Literacy and Biliteracy
This session focuses first on reviewing who adult ESOL learners are, and where they need and use English and for which purposes. It then explores different approaches and methods for facilitating the teaching and learning of ESOL. It addresses the course-long process of showing how ESOL can be taught, learned, and assessed by analyzing some frequently used approaches and methods, particularly use of first language and biliteracy. It further provides participants with general insight into key findings of second language learning theory and research and explores how teaching approaches align or conflict with these findings. The aim of this session is for participants to develop and articulate their approach to teaching and learning ESOL and to begin to evaluate their current in view of this approach..
Learning Standards addressed in this session:
1. Identify the reasons why adults learn English, the contexts in which they learn English, and the experiences (i.e., interests, needs, skills, background) they bring to the ESOL classroom
2. Describe how different adult learner characteristics, experiences and interests may affect learning and what implications these may have for teaching
3. Explain why different approaches and methods for teaching ESOL may be appropriate for some (groups of) learners and not for others
- contexts: Name different settings where ESOL is needed, taught, and learned and the purposes of language learning associated with these contexts.
- Apply this information in the facilitation of teaching and learning.
- approaches Identify different ways that ESOL can be (and has been) taught, learned, and assessed.
5. Identify common assessment practices of local program and assessment requirements of federal and state funding agencies.
6, Assess progress and achievement of ESOL learners using classroom observations, standardized or nonstandardized assessment instruments of ongoing, or final assessment of English language proficiency.
Participants are expected to know and be able to identify where adult ESOL learners need and use English and why, to identify different ways that ESOL can be (and has been ) taught, learned, and assessed, and to incorporate key findings from current research and theories of first and second language acquisition in oneÕs approach and classroom practice?
Standard Two: Participants will demonstrate their understanding of the different settings where ESOL is or can be taught and learned and the purposes associated with these contexts. They will demonstrate how they can gather this information from and with learners, as part of their regular classroom activities at the beginning of a class or course. They will do so by identifying and outlining at least three possible teaching and learning activities that incorporate this information. A paragraph or a few bullets per activity will suffice. Participants who identify activities beyond the classroom exceed the standard. Participants will identify these activities in approximately 25 minutes. The rationale for this standard is that in order to maximize learning teachers should be able to create learning activities that solicit information regarding learner contexts and purposes for using English.
Standard Three: Participants will be able to demonstrate their ability to incorporate their understanding of approaches to ESOL language and literacy teaching, and to explain why different approaches and methods for teaching ESOL may be appropriate for some (groups of) learners and not for others. The paper should minimally articulate their views of the purposes of ESOL teaching, language, teacher and student roles, and the teaching/learning process and should state specifically how these assumptions are or are not consistent with findings/ approaches considered during the first two sessions, and in the readings. Participants who can give an example from their past or current classroom practice that demonstrates these assumptions will exceed the standard. Those whose paper describes how issues of learning disabilities, diversity, multi-level classes, and native language literacy and use are integrated in their approach will exceed the standard. This writing is due at the beginning of Session Five.
Standards five and six: Participants will learn about a variety of assessment instruments used in Massachusetts ESOL programs and will also be made aware of varying assessment requirements of funders and others. They will learn the benefits and drawbacks of using these instruments in assessing learnersÕ abilities at the beginning of a course and also be made aware of other means of assessing levels and ongoing progress by administering the BEST test to a learner and analysing the results of that learnerÕs performance on the test. This analysis will include discussion with the learnerÕs regular teacher (if the learner is not in the participantÕs class) and an examination of other evidence of the learnerÕs ability, e.g. observation, portfolio documents, etc.
Theme Two: Where and Why do Adults Need and learn English? learning challenges, diagnostics, SPL, placement, goal setting, learning plans
- Mapping where adults need and learn English and why
- Implications for teaching
Theme Three: How to Teach ESOL and Why principles of second language acquisition, Native Language Literacy and Biliteracy
training materials available online:
Assignments for session three
check these resources
Frontier College: A Toolbox for ESL Tutors - an instructional guide for teaching ESL to newcomers. Provides interesting assessment questions to help tutors determine what learners know about a particular theme before launching into the topic. Although some of the themes are Canadian-based, the questions and processes are easily adaptable to other contexts.
tutor resources on LR/RI's site.
Field Notes, special issue on reading
assignment for session three: administer one of the assessment instruments exploring during session three; written report of the process of administering the instrument
complete learner profile from session one
Assessment assignment: administer one of the assessment instruments exploring during session three; written report of the process of administering the instrument; document the process of implementing the test and also its implications for determining a learnerÕs abilities (based on discussion with the learnerÕs core instructor Š if the learner is not in a class the participant is teaching) and other relevant evidence.
Observation profile (assigned during Session One) is also due for Session Three.
Begin drafting five-page response paper on teaching approach. [Participants might collaborate/work in groups to focus/report on different readings, but each individual is responsible for her/his own paper]
Theme Three, continued (How to teach ESOL and why: principles of second language acquisition, (more) approaches
Theme Four: How to Teach ESOL and Why: ESOL, reading, and writing, considering learning dis/abilities
This session addresses key questions that teachers need to answer for themselves and highlights common issues ESOL teachers face. It addresses whether, when, and how to teach grammar, correct errors, and use first language of learners. It explores teaching reading and writing, and touches on meeting the challenge of teaching multi-level classes (which, along with a consideration of ESOL literacy, is explored more fully in session four). In the latter part of this session, participants will learn about the Massachusetts Adult ESOL Curriculum Framework. They will learn what ESOL students are expected to know and be able to do and will learn how to use this document as a resource in deciding how to address the teaching challenges raised in the first part of this session. This session begins to build the foundation for the practicum.
Learning Standards addressed in this session:
2. Describe how different adult learner characteristics, experiences and interests may affect learning and what implications these may have for teaching.
3. Explain why different approaches and methods for teaching ESOL may be appropriate for some (groups of) learners and not for others.
4.. Articulate one's beliefs about the purpose of teaching ESOL and one's views of language, and the teaching and learning processes and the roles of teachers and learners in them. [ the use of the students' first language, grammar instruction, and error correction] .
7. Locate and evaluate appropriateness of existing materials for teaching and learning ESOL for a specific student population
Participants are expected to know / be able to: use knowledge of English language learning in designing lesson plans; explain when error correction is appropriate and demonstrate different ways of correcting errors, their advantages and disadvantages; identify possible benefits and drawbacks of native language literacy and use of studentsÕ first language in the ESOL classroom, and explain the purpose, content, and structure of the Adult ESOL Curriculum Framework.
Standard Four: Participants will demonstrate their ability to apply knowledge English language learning by identifying a situation where they feel error correction is justified and by specifying why and how they would correct the error(s). Minimally participants should be able to identify a situation, write down at least one justification, and write down at least one way to correct errors. Assessment will take ten minutes. The expected minimum response does not require a polished narrative. Key phrases and/or bullets will suffice. Participant responses that also note research findings regarding error correction to support their views will exceed the standard.
Standard Five: In pairs, participants will teach each other purposes, content, and structure of ESOL assessment instruments. Minimally, participants should define in their own words what each instrument is designed to assess and to offer critique of each based on prior experience and information presented.. Participants who comment on ways in which other forms of assessment inform practice will exceed the standard.
For the remaining learning standards, participants are expected to address the issues of native language literacy and use, learning disabilities, and multi-level classes as part of their response paper on their approach due for Session Five.
Assignment Š continue work on response paper, due Session Five; explore resources
training materials available online:
Massuachusetts DOE Curriculum Frameworks
Reflections at the End of an ESL Day Joanna Scott,Westford, MA, Originally published in Adventures in Assessment, Volume 11 (Winter 1998),
also available to download as PDF File
or as a word file
Beginning English Basics On line resources for teaching basic ESOL from about.com.
Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 3rd edition H. Douglas Brown (1994); additionally, a search at Google.com ["Douglas Brown+grammar"] yields a number of online grammar activities culled from Brown's texts
Annotated biliography of research on reading and adult learning English as a second Languagefrom the National Center for ESL Literacy Education
Articles on writing from Focus on Basics
Articles on reading from Focus on Basics; general index also contains potentially useful articles
to sessions 4 - 6
january 16, 2006__________________________________________________